Dystocia is a difficult or prolonged parturition that is a reproductive emergency requiring medical or surgical intervention by a skilled team to minimize perinatal . Dystocia is the medical term used to diagnose a difficult birthing experience. Learn more about Dig Birth Difficulties and treatment at Learn about the veterinary topic of Dystocia in Small Animals. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the MSD Vet Manual.

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Brisk rubbing with a warm towel is an excellent respiratory stimulant; if cyanosis is dystoica, the neonate may be provided supplemental flow-by oxygen or oxygen through a snug-fitting mask.

Canine Dystocia

Pertinent information includes breeding dates, ovulation date, vaginal cytology, and preovulatory LH peak date, when available, to establish a whelping date.

There is evidence in humans that mothers given higher rates of intravenous fluids have a shorter duration of labor and decreased need for oxytocin administration.

The clinical examination includes a general examination as well as an obstetric examination, including digital vaginal exploration and vaginoscopy sterile. Already have an account? Halogenated agents, like isoflurane, make excellent maintenance anesthetics and provide uterine relaxation, which facilitates manipulation of the fetus during the cesarean section.

When is the right dyatocia to… II. Medical management of dystocia is pursued only when the bitch is dyshocia, the cervix is dilated, fetal size and positioning are appropriate for vaginal delivery, and fetal heart rate is normal. TC Turks and Caicos Islands. Relaxin hormone, produced by the ovary and placenta, assists fetal passage by allowing the interpubic ligament to elongate and the pubic bones to separate. Emergency Cases — How to…. If effective, oxytocin can be given every 30 minutes until all fetuses are delivered.


Dystocia has conventionally been described as being of maternal or fetal origin. A thorough history should be collected.

Prostaglandins are luteolytic, contribute to the decline in circulating progesterone, remove the inhibition of myometrial contractility, and mediate the effects of oxytocin on the uterus. Mast Cell Tumour Behaviour. It is not uncommon for the bitch to bite the amniotic and allantoic membranes, sever the umbilical cord, and ingest the canne after parturition. Learn how to enable JavaScript. Medical and Surgical Management. Current monitoring tools available to the veterinarian include B-mode ultrasonography, Doppler fetal heart rate ultrasonography, and tocodynamometry, which can detect changes in intrauterine pressure.

Pets in Human Hospitals. One Health – One Welfare. If ovulation timing is unknown, whelping is estimated to occur 56 to 72 days postbreeding because of the variation in proestrus and estrus between individual animals.

Robbins and Mullen 43 demonstrated no significant difference in neonatal survival rates for dogs delivered via ovariohysterectomy compared with rates for dogs delivered by traditional cesarean section. The dam should be observed in the early postoperative period and the puppies returned to nurse when the dam is sternal and alert.

Canine dystocia–a review of the literature.

Indicators of dystocia are:. Armed Forces Pacific Ap. This potential benefit must be weighed against the need for restraint and potential catecholamine release in the dam. Management includes digital or forcep fetal manipulation and the administration of medications to augment uterine contractions see Box.


If a patients dystocia risk is significant, an emergency intervention plan should be put in place for either medical management, if appropriate, or elective cesarean delivery.

Author Information show hide. Additional recommendations include using drugs with a short duration of action, using drugs that are reversible, and minimizing the time the dam is exposed to inhalant anesthetics.

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Canine dystocia–a review of the literature.

Complications of Intestinal Surgery. Several dog breeds are associated with an increased risk for dystocia. Human obstetricians routinely use oxytocin as a continuous-rate infusion, with several protocols well described in the literature. Abdominal palpation is performed to check for the presence and position of pups, uterine contractions, and signs of abdominal pain, which may indicate caniine pathology.

Indicators of dystocia are: Fetal blood pressure and perfusion are heart-rate dependent, so anticholinergic drugs should be part of the maternal premedication protocol to caanine fetal bradycardia 3 and decrease vagal tone induced by intraoperative uterine traction.

Antibiosis in Critical Care. Initial evaluation of the dam requires an accurate history and thorough physical examination. Please enter a valid Email address!

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